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The low level (about 2%) of homoplasy (marker duplication from independent identical mutations) that had been found in the Y-chromosome tree implied that it contained more accurate phylogenetic information than the maternally based human mitochondrial-DNA tree.Mitochondrial DNA had much higher levels of homoplasy owing to its frequent recurring mutations.Each marker was an identifiable paternal DNA variation that was inherited by the male descendents of the person in which the variation first occurred.The markers therefore revealed genetically related groupings of Y chromosomes, or haplogroups, which in turn helped show the migratory patterns of humans and how various populations were related to one another.

Built by seminomadic hunter-gatherers in an age before the wheel, pottery, or domesticated plants and animals, Gobekli Tepe predated Mesopotamia's first cities by more than 5,500 years.Twenty such circles had been located with ground-penetrating radar, and seven had been excavated to date.The pillars, up to 4 m (13 ft) in height, were thought to be highly stylized anthropomorphic figures, and many of them were carved with the images of animals, including boars, birds, snakes, foxes, lions, and scorpions.Prior to its discovery, it was believed that such monumental sites could have been constructed only by the complex civilizations that arose after the adoption of agriculture.Also in southeastern Turkey, the remains of a Neo-Assyrian governor's palace were unearthed during rescue excavations at Ziyaret Tepe, where the Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II (ruled 883–859 BC) established his provincial capital of Tushhan in 882 BC.

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